Past simple

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lezione
Past simple
Tipo di risorsa Tipo: lezione
Materia di appartenenza Materia: Lingua inglese




Uso[modifica]

Il past simple esprime azioni iniziate e concluse nel passato, azioni abituali o che sono durate nel tempo. In italiano il past simple corrisponde al passato remoto, all'imperfetto e al passato prossimo.

Formazione[modifica]

Spesso è accompagnato da espressioni di tempo come yesterday, last night, last month, three days ago, ecc. Ha un'unica forma per tutte e sei le persone.

Verbi regolari[modifica]

I verbi regolari lo formano aggiungendo -ed alla forma base del verbo.

                   I wash → I washed
                   I walk → I walked
                   I work → I worked

Variazioni ortografiche[modifica]

  • I verbi che finiscono in -y, se la penultima lettera del verbo in questione è una consonante, al past simple terminano in -ied.
                   I try → I tried
                   I tidy → I tidied
  • I verbi che terminano in -e, aggiungono solo -d.
                   I like → I liked
  • I verbi monosillabici, che terminano con una consonante preceduta da una sola vocale, oppure i verbi bisillabici che terminano con una consonante preceduta da una vocale accentata, raddoppiano l'ultima consonante e aggiungono -ed.
                   I stop → I stopped
                   I refer → I referred
  • (Solo nell'inglese britannico) I verbi che finiscono per -l preceduta da vocale, raddoppiano la -l e aggiungono -ed.
                   I travel → I travelled

Verbi irregolari[modifica]

I verbi irregolari non formano il passato aggiungendo -ed, ma hanno una forma particolare. Nella tabella vengono visualizzati i past participles (participi passati), che vengono usati per comporre i tempi composti.

Verbo [traduzione] Past simple Past participle
to arise [sorgere, alzarsi] arose arisen
to awake [svegliare] awoke awoken
to be [essere] Vedi qui Vedi qui
to bear [nascere] bore born
to beat [battere] beat beaten
to become [diventare] became become
to begin [cominciare] began begun
to bend [piegare] bent bent
to bet [scommettere] bet bet
to bind [legare] bound bound
to bite [mordere] bit bitten
to bleed [sanguinare] bled bled
to blow [soffiare] blew blown
to break [rompere] broke broken
to bring [portare] brought brought
to broadcast [trasmettere] broadcast broadcast
to build [costruire] built built
to burn [bruciare] burnt burnt
to burst [scoppiare] burst burst
to buy [comprare] bought bought
to cast [gettare] cast cast
to catch [catturare] caught caught
to choose [scegliere] chose chosen
to come [venire] came come
to cost [costare] cost cost
to cut [tagliare] cut cut
to deal (with) [trattare] dealt dealt
to dig [scavare] dug dug
to do [fare] did done
to draw [disegnare] drew drawn
to dream (of) [sognare] dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed)
to drink [bere] drank drunk
to drive [guidare] drove driven
to eat [mangiare] ate eaten
to fall [cadere] fell fallen
to feed [dar da mangiare] fed fed
to feel [sentire, provare] felt felt
to fight [combattere] fought fought
to find [trovare] found found
to fly [volare] flew flown
to forbid [vietare, proibire] forbade forbidden
to forecast [prevedere] forecast forecast
to forget [dimenticare] forgot forgotten
to forgive [perdonare] forgave forgiven
to freeze [gelare] froze frozen
to get [ricavare, ottenere] got gotten
to give [dare] gave given
to go [andare] went gone
to grind [macinare] ground ground
to grow [crescere] grew grown
to hang [appendere] hung (hanged) hung (hanged)
to have [avere] had had
to hear [udire] heard heard
to hide [nascondere, -rsi] hid hid, hidden
to hit [colpire] hit hit
to hold [tenere] held held
to hurt [far male] hurt hurt
to keep [tenere] kept kept
to kneel [inginocchiarsi] knelt knelt
to knit [lavorare a maglia] knit knit
to know [sapere, conoscere] knew known
to lay [deporre, posare] laid laid
to lead [condurre] led led
to lean [appoggiare, -rsi] leant leant
to learn [imparare] learnt (learned) learnt (learned)
to leave [lasciare] left left
to lend [prestare] lent lent
to let [lasciare, permettere] let let
to lie [mentire] lied (regolare) lied (regolare)
to lie [giacere] lay lain
to light [accendere, illuminare] lit lit
to lose [perdere] lost lost
to make [fare] made made
to mean [significare] meant meant
to meet [incontrare] met met
to mistake [confondere] mistook mistaken
to overtake [sorpassare] overtook overtaken
to pay [pagare] paid paid
to put [mettere] put put
to read [leggere] read read
to ride [cavalcare] rode ridden
to ring [suonare (il campanello)] rang rung
to rise [sorgere, alzarsi] rose risen
to run [correre] ran run
to say [dire] said said
to see [vedere] saw seen
to seek [cercare] sought sought
to sell [vendere] sold sold
to send [spedire] sent sent
to set [collocare] set set
to sew [cucire] sewed sewn
to shake [scuotere] shook shaken
to shed [elargire] shed shed
to shine [risplendere] shone (shined) shone (shined)
to shoot [sparare] shot shot
to show [mostrare] showed shown
to shut [chiudere] shut shut
to sing [cantare] sang sung
to sink [affondare] sank sunk
to sit [sedere] sat sat
to sleep [dormire] slept slept
to smell [odorare] smelt smelt
to speak [parlare] spoke spoken
to spell [scandire in lettere] spelt spelt
to spend [spendere, trascorrere] spent spent
to spill [versare] spilt spilt
to spoil [guastare, viziare] spoilt spoilt
to spread [diffondere] spread spread
to stand [stare in piedi] stood stood
to steal [rubare] stole stolen
to stick [incollare] stuck stuck
to sting [pungere (di insetti)] stung stung
to strike [battere, suonare] struck struck
to sweep [spazzare] swept swept
to swim [nuotare] swam swum
to take [prendere] took taken
to teach [insegnare] taught taught
to tear [strappare] tore torn
to tell [dire, raccontare] told told
to think [pensare] thought thought
to throw [lanciare] threw thrown
to understand [capire] understood understood
to wake [svegliarsi] woke (waked) woke, woken (waked)
to wear [indossare] wore worn
to weave [tessere] wove woven
to weep [piangere] wept wept
to win [vincere] won won
to withdraw [ritirare] withdrew withdrawn
to write [scrivere] wrote written